Tractatenblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

Datum publicatieOrganisatieJaargang en nummerRubriekDatum totstandkoming
Ministerie van Buitenlandse ZakenTractatenblad 2009, 47Verdrag

A. TITEL

Overeenkomst inzake de bescherming van Afrikaans-Euraziatische trekkende watervogels;

(met Bijlagen)

’s-Gravenhage, 15 augustus 1996

B. TEKST

De Engelse en de Franse tekst van de Overeenkomst, met Bijlagen, zijn geplaatst in Trb. 1996, 285.

Zie voor correcties in de Franse tekst Trb. 2005, 25.

Voor de Engelse en Franse tekst van de wijziging van 9 november 1999 van Bijlage 3 en zijn Tabel 1, bij de Overeenkomst zie Trb. 2005, 25.

Voor de Engelse en Franse tekst van de wijziging van 27 september 2002 van Bijlage 2 en Tabel 1 van Bijlage 3 bij de Overeenkomst zie eveneens Trb. 2005, 25.

Tijdens de vierde zitting van de Vergadering der partijen, die van 15 tot 19 september 2008 plaatsvond in Antananarivo, werd een Besluit tot wijziging van Bijlagen 2 en 3, inclusief zijn Tabel 1 bij de Overeenkomst aangenomen. De Engelse en de Franse tekst van het Besluit van 19 september 2008 en de gewijzigde Bijlagen 2 en 3, inclusief zijn Tabel 1 luiden als volgt:

Resolution 4.11
Amendments to the Annexes to the Agreement

Recalling Article X of the Agreement concerning the procedures for amendments to the Agreement and its annexes,

Further recalling Resolution 2.1, which, inter alia, requested the Technical Committee to review further development of the Agreement by including additional species of wetland birds traditionally considered to be seabirds,

Noting Resolution 3.8, which, inter alia, requested the Technical Committee to further consider the potential role of the Agreement in the conservation of seabirds, taking into account the action being undertaken by other multilateral environmental agreements and international organizations,

Recognising the work of the Technical Committee over the past triennium to address these requests and Having reviewed the Technical Committee’s conclusions (document AEWA/MOP Inf. 4.2),

Further recognising the work of the Technical Committee to review the Agreement’s Action Plan and Table 1 in the light of the findings of the international reviews,

Taking into account the findings of the fourth edition of the Report on the Conservation Status of Migratory Waterbirds in the Agreement area (document AEWA/MOP 4.8); the Review on pertinent hunting and trade legislation relating to the species listed in Annex of the Agreement (document AEWA/MOP 4.9); and the Review on the progress in phasing out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands (document AEWA/MOP 4.7), and

Acknowledging the following proposals for amendments to the annexes to the Agreement:

  • a) Proposals for amendments to Annexes 2 (Waterbird species to which the Agreement applies) and 3 (Table 1) submitted by Mauritius, which concern the addition of 20 species of waterbirds traditionally considered as seabirds and the conservation status of their populations;

  • b) Proposals for amendments to Annex 3 (Table 1) submitted by Italy, which concern the conservation status and definition of several populations, associated conservation status revision derived from the most recent IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and revised definition of geographical terms used in range descriptions;

  • c) Proposals for amendments to paragraphs 2.1.2(d) and 7.5 of the Agreement’s Action Plan (Annex 3) submitted by Croatia, which concern possession, utilization and trade in parts and derivatives of birds and eggs of Column B populations and the frequency of update of the international reviews;

  • d) Proposals for amendments to paragraph 4.1.4 and section 4.3 of the Agreement’s Action Plan (Annex 3) submitted by Libya, which concern the deadline for phasing out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands and measures dealing with management of human activities,

and comments received from Contracting Parties concerning these proposals, all of which are presented in document AEWA/MOP 4.24.

The Meeting of the Parties:

  • 1. Agrees to include additional 20 species in Annex 2 of the Agreement (AEWA Annex 2: Waterbird Species to which the Agreement Applies) as described in document AEWA/MOP 4.24 and Adopts the revised version of Annex 2 to the Agreement appended to the present Resolution as Appendix 1;

  • 2. Adopts the revised version of Table 1 of the Action Plan appended to the present Resolution as Appendix 2, to replace the current Table 1 of the Action Plan;

  • 3. Adopts the revised text of paragraph 2.1.2(d) of the AEWA Action Plan (AEWA Annex 3), which shall read as follows:

    “Prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds and eggs of the populations which have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognisable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.”;

  • 4. Adopts the revised text of paragraph 4.1.4 of the AEWA Action Plan (AEWA Annex 3), which shall read as follows:

    “Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands as soon as possible in accordance with self-imposed and published timetables.”;

  • 5. Adopts the addition of the following paragraphs to section 4.3 of the AEWA Action Plan (AEWA Annex 3):

    • “4.3.7. Parties are urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries 1) on migratory waterbirds, and where possible cooperate within these forums, in order to decrease the mortality in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; appropriate measures shall especially address incidental killing and bycatch in fishing gear including the use of gill nets, longlines and trawling.

    • 4.3.8. Parties are also urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries on migratory waterbirds resulting in particular from unsustainable fishing that causes depletion of food resources for migratory waterbirds.

    • 4.3.9. Parties shall establish and effectively enforce adequate statutory pollution controls in accordance with international norms and legal agreements, particularly as related to oil spills, discharge and dumping of solid wastes, for the purpose of minimizing their impacts on the populations listed in Table 1.

    • 4.3.10. Parties shall establish appropriate measures, ideally to eliminate or otherwise to mitigate the threat from non-native terrestrial predators to breeding migratory waterbirds on islands and islets. Measures should refer to contingency planning to prevent invasion, emergency responses to remove introduced predators, and restoration programmes for islands where predator populations are already established.

    • 4.3.11. Parties are urged to establish appropriate measures to tackle threats to migratory waterbirds from aquaculture, including environmental assessment for developments that threaten wetlands of importance for waterbirds, especially when dealing with new or enlargement of existing installations, and involving issues such as pollution (e.g. from residues of pharmaceutical treatments used in aquaculture or eutrophication), habitat loss, entanglement risks, and introduction of non-native and potentially invasive species.”;

  • 6. Adopts the revised text of paragraph 7.5 of the AEWA Action Plan (AEWA Annex 3), which shall read as follows:

    “The Agreement Secretariat shall endeavour to ensure that the reviews mentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at the following intervals:

    (a) – every session of the Meeting of the Parties; (b) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (c) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (d) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties; (e) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (f) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties; (g) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties.”;

  • 7. Requests the Secretariat to monitor the implementation of the amendments; and

  • 8. Requests the Technical Committee:

    • a) to review ornithological data on the Little Tern Sterna albifrons for a better delineation of the Mediterranean populations taking into account the relevant information concerning the Italian breeding population and to draft a consequent proposal for amendments to Table 1, as appropriate, to be presented to the 5th Session of the Meeting of the Parties;

    • b) to review the definitions of geographical terms used in range descriptions of populations in Table 1 and to draft a consequent proposal for amendments to Table 1, as appropriate, to be presented to the 5th Session of the Meeting of the Parties;

    • c) in the light of the development of terminology used by IUCN for Red Data Lists, to review, as a matter of priority, the applicability of the threat criteria, especially the Near Threatened IUCN Category, to the listing of populations in Table 1 and to present options for the amendment of Table 1 to be considered at the 5th Session of the Meeting of the Parties;

    • d) to review taxonomic classifications of birds and suggest the most appropriate classification for the purposes of the Agreement, including application to Annex 2, and to draft a consequent proposal for amendments to Annex 2 and Table 1, as appropriate, to be presented to the 5th Session of the Meeting of the Parties;

    • e) to draft a proposal for amendments to the AEWA Action Plan to deal with tackling the effects of aquatic invasive non-native species on watebird habitats to be presented to the 5th Session of the Meeting of the Parties.


Annex 2
Waterbird species to which the Agreement applies1)

SPHENISCIDAE

 
   

Spheniscus demersus

African Penguin

   

GAVIIDAE

 
   

Gavia stellata

Red-throated Diver

Gavia arctica

Black-throated Diver

Gavia immer

Great Northern Diver

Gavia adamsii

White-billed Diver

   

PODICIPEDIDAE

 
   

Tachybaptus ruficollis

Little Grebe

Podiceps cristatus

Great Crested Grebe

Podiceps grisegena

Red-necked Grebe

Podiceps auritus

Slavonian Grebe

Podiceps nigricollis

Black-necked Grebe

   

PHAETHONTIDAE

 
   

Phaethon aetheras

Red-billed Tropicbird

Phaethon rubricauda

Red-tailed Tropicbird

Phaethon lepturus

White-tailed Tropicbird

   

PELECANIDAE

 
   

Pelecanus onocrotalus

Great White Pelican

Pelecanus rufescens

Pink-backed Pelican

Pelecanus crispus

Dalmatian Pelican

   

SULIDAE

 
   

Sula (Morus) bassana

Northern Gannet

Sula (Morus) capensis

Cape Gannet

Sula dactylatra

Masked Booby

   

PHALACROCORACIDAE

 
   

Phalacrocorax coronatus

Crowned Cormorant

Phalacrocorax pygmeus

Pygmy Cormorant

Phalacrocorax neglectus

Bank Cormorant

Phalacrocorax carbo

Great Cormorant

Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

Socotra Cormorant

Phalacrocorax capensis

Cape Cormorant

   

FREGATIDAE

 
   

Fregata minor

Great Frigatebird

Fregata ariel

Lesser Frigatebird

   

ARDEIDAE

 
   

Egretta ardesiaca

Black Heron

Egretta vinaceigula

Slaty Egret

Egretta garzetta

Little Egret

Egretta gularis

Western Reef Egret

Egretta dimorpha

Mascarene Reef Egret

Ardea cinerea

Grey Heron

Ardea melanocephala

Black-headed Heron

Ardea purpurea

Purple Heron

Casmerodius albus

Great Egret

Mesophoyx intermedia

Intermediate Egret

Bubulcus ibis

Cattle Egret

Ardeola ralloides

Squacco Heron

Ardeola idae

Madagascar Pond-Heron

Ardeola rufiventris

Rufous-bellied Heron

Nycticorax nycticorax

Black-crowned Night-Heron

Ixobrychus minutus

Little Bittern

Ixobrychus sturmii

Dwarf Bittern

Botaurus stellaris

Great Bittern

   

CICONIIDAE

 
   

Mycteria ibis

Yellow-billed Stork

Anastomus lamelligerus

African Openbill

Ciconia nigra

Black Stork

Ciconia abdimii

Abdim’s Stork

Ciconia episcopus

Woolly-necked Stork

Ciconia ciconia

White Stork

Leptoptilos crumeniferus

Marabou Stork

   

BALAENICIPITIDAE

 
   

Balaeniceps rex

Shoebill

   

THRESKIORNITHIDAE

 
   

Plegadis falcinellus

Glossy Ibis

Geronticus eremita

Waldrapp

Threskiornis aethiopicus

Sacred Ibis

Platalea leucorodia

Eurasian Spoonbill

Platalea alba

African Spoonbill

   

PHOENICOPTERIDAE

 
   

Phoenicopterus ruber

Greater Flamingo

Phoenicopterus minor

Lesser Flamingo

   

ANATIDAE

 
   

Dendrocygna bicolor

Fulvous Whistling-Duck

Dendrocygna viduata

White-faced Whistling-Duck

Thalassornis leuconotus

White-backed Duck

Oxyura leucocephala

White-headed Duck

Oxyura maccoa

Maccoa Duck

Cygnus olor

Mute Swan

Cygnus cygnus

Whooper Swan

Cygnus columbianus

Bewick’s Swan

Anser brachyrhynchus

Pink-footed Goose

Anser fabalis

Bean Goose

Anser albifrons

Greater White-fronted Goose

Anser erythropus

Lesser White-fronted Goose

Anser anser

Greylag Goose

Branta leucopsis

Barnacle Goose

Branta bernicla

Brent Goose

Branta ruficollis

Red-breasted Goose

Alopochen aegyptiacus

Egyptian Goose

Tadorna ferruginea

Ruddy Shelduck

Tadorna cana

South African Shelduck

Tadorna tadorna

Common Shelduck

Plectropterus gambensis

Spur-winged Goose

Sarkidiornis melanotos

Comb Duck

Nettapus auritus

African Pygmy-goose

Anas penelope

Eurasian Wigeon

Anas strepera

Gadwall

Anas crecca

Common Teal

Anas capensis

Cape Teal

Anas platyrhynchos

Mallard

Anas undulata

Yellow-billed Duck

Anas acuta

Northern Pintail

Anas erythrorhyncha

Red-billed Duck

Anas hottentota

Hottentot Teal

Anas querquedula

Garganey

Anas clypeata

Northern Shoveler

Marmaronetta angustirostris

Marbled Teal

Netta rufina

Red-crested Pochard

Netta erythrophthalma

Southern Pochard

Aythya ferina

Common Pochard

Aythya nyroca

Ferruginous Pochard

Aythya fuligula

Tufted Duck

Aythya marila

Greater Scaup

Somateria mollissima

Common Eider

Somateria spectabilis

King Eider

Polysticta stelleri

Steller’s Eider

Clangula hyemalis

Long-tailed Duck

Melanitta nigra

Common Scoter

Melanitta fusca

Velvet Scoter

Bucephala clangula

Common Goldeneye

Mergellus albellus

Smew

Mergus serrator

Red-breasted Merganser

Mergus merganser

Goosander

   

GRUIDAE

 
   

Balearica pavonina

Black Crowned Crane

Balearica regulorum

Grey Crowned Crane

Grus leucogeranus

Siberian Crane

Grus virgo

Demoiselle Crane

Grus paradisea

Blue Crane

Grus carunculatus

Wattled Crane

Grus grus

Common Crane

   

RALLIDAE

 
   

Sarothrura elegans

Buff-spotted Flufftail

Sarothrura boehmi

Streaky-breasted Flufftail

Sarothrura ayresi

White-winged Flufftail

Rallus aquaticus

Water Rail

Rallus caerulescens

African Rail

Crecopsis egregia

African Crake

Crex crex

Corncrake

Amaurornis flavirostris

Black Crake

Porzana parva

Little Crake

Porzana pusilla

Baillon’s Crake

Porzana porzana

Spotted Crake

Aenigmatolimnas marginalis

Striped Crake

Porphyrio alleni

Allen’s Gallinule

Gallinula chloropus

Common Moorhen

Gallinula angulata

Lesser Moorhen

Fulica cristata

Red-knobbed Coot

Fulica atra

Common Coot

   

DROMADIDAE

 
   

Dromas ardeola

Crab Plover

   

HAEMATOPODIDAE

 
   

Haematopus ostralegus

Eurasian Oystercatcher

Haematopus moquini

African Black Oystercatcher

   

RECURVIROSTRIDAE

 
   

Himantopus himantopus

Black-winged Stilt

Recurvirostra avosetta

Pied Avocet

   

BURHINIDAE

 
   

Burhinus senegalensis

Senegal Thick-knee

   

GLAREOLIDAE

 
   

Pluvianus aegyptius

Egyptian Plover

Glareola pratincola

Collared Pratincole

Glareola nordmanni

Black-winged Pratincole

Glareola ocularis

Madagascar Pratincole

Glareola nuchalis

Rock Pratincole

Glareola cinerea

Grey Pratincole

   

CHARADRIIDAE

 
   

Pluvialis apricaria

Eurasian Golden Plover

Pluvialis fulva

Pacific Golden Plover

Pluvialis squatarola

Grey Plover

Charadrius hiaticula

Common Ringed Plover

Charadrius dubius

Little Ringed Plover

Charadrius pecuarius

Kittlitz’s Plover

Charadrius tricollaris

Three-banded Plover

Charadrius forbesi

Forbes’s Plover

Charadrius pallidus

Chestnut-banded Plover

Charadrius alexandrinus

Kentish Plover

Charadrius marginatus

White-fronted Plover

Charadrius mongolus

Mongolian Plover

Charadrius leschenaultii

Greater Sandplover

Charadrius asiaticus

Caspian Plover

Eudromias morinellus

Eurasian Dotterel

Vanellus vanellus

Northern Lapwing

Vanellus spinosus

Spur-winged Plover

Vanellus albiceps

White-headed Lapwing

Vanellus senegallus

Wattled Lapwing

Vanellus lugubris

Senegal Lapwing

Vanellus melanopterus

Black-winged Lapwing

Vanellus coronatus

Crowned Lapwing

Vanellus superciliosus

Brown-chested Lapwing

Vanellus gregarius

Sociable Plover

Vanellus leucurus

White-tailed Plover

   

SCOLOPACIDAE

 
   

Scolopax rusticola

Eurasian Woodcock

Gallinago stenura

Pintail Snipe

Gallinago media

Great Snipe

Gallinago gallinago

Common Snipe

Lymnocryptes minimus

Jack Snipe

Limosa limosa

Black-tailed Godwit

Limosa lapponica

Bar-tailed Godwit

Numenius phaeopus

Whimbrel

Numenius tenuirostris

Slender-billed Curlew

Numenius arquata

Eurasian Curlew

Tringa erythropus

Spotted Redshank

Tringa totanus

Common Redshank

Tringa stagnatilis

Marsh Sandpiper

Tringa nebularia

Common Greenshank

Tringa ochropus

Green Sandpiper

Tringa glareola

Wood Sandpiper

Tringa cinerea

Terek Sandpiper

Tringa hypoleucos

Common Sandpiper

Arenaria interpres

Ruddy Turnstone

Calidris tenuirostris

Great Knot

Calidris canutus

Red Knot

Calidris alba

Sanderling

Calidris minuta

Little Stint

Calidris temminckii

Temminck’s Stint

Calidris maritima

Purple Sandpiper

Calidris alpina

Dunlin

Calidris ferruginea

Curlew Sandpiper

Limicola falcinellus

Broad-billed Sandpiper

Philomachus pugnax

Ruff

Phalaropus lobatus

Red-necked Phalarope

Phalaropus fulicaria

Grey Phalarope

   

STERCORARIIDAE

 
   

Catharacta skua

Great Skua

Stercorarius longicaudus

Long-tailed Skua

   

LARIDAE

 
   

Larus leucophthalmus

White-eyed Gull

Larus hemprichii

Sooty Gull

Larus canus

Common Gull

Larus audouinii

Audouin’s Gull

Larus marinus

Great Black-backed Gull

Larus dominicanus

Kelp Gull

Larus hyperboreus

Glaucous Gull

Larus glaucoides

Iceland Gull

Larus argentatus

Herring Gull

Larus heuglini

Heuglin’s Gull

Larus armenicus

Armenian Gull

Larus cachinnans

Yellow-legged Gull

Larus fuscus

Lesser Black-backed Gull

Larus ichthyaetus

Great Black-headed Gull

Larus cirrocephalus

Grey-headed Gull

Larus hartlaubii

Hartlaub’s Gull

Larus ridibundus

Common Black-headed Gull

Larus genei

Slender-billed Gull

Larus melanocephalus

Mediterranean Gull

Larus minutus

Little Gull

Xema sabini

Sabine’s Gull

Rissa tridactyla

Black-legged Kittiwake

   

STERNIDAE

 
   

Sterna nilotica

Gull-billed Tern

Sterna caspia

Caspian Tern

Sterna maxima

Royal Tern

Sterna bengalensis

Lesser Crested Tern

Sterna bergii

Great Crested Tern

Sterna sandvicensis

Sandwich Tern

Sterna dougallii

Roseate Tern

Sterna vittata

Antarctic Tern

Sterna hirundo

Common Tern

Sterna paradisaea

Arctic Tern

Sterna albifrons

Little Tern

Sterna saundersi

Saunders’s Tern

Sterna balaenarum

Damara Tern

Sterna repressa

White-cheeked Tern

Sterna anaethetus

Bridled Tern

Sterna fuscata

Sooty Tern

Chlidonias hybridus

Whiskered Tern

Chlidonias leucopterus

White-winged Tern

Chlidonias niger

Black Tern

Anous stolidus

Brown Noddy

Anous tenuirostris

Lesser Noddy

   

RYNCHOPIDAE

 
   

Rynchops flavirostris

African Skimmer

   

ALCIDAE

 
   

Alle alle

Little Auk

Uria aalge

Common Guillemot

Uria lomvia

Brunnich’s Guillemot

Alca torda

Razorbill

Cepphus grylle

Black Guillemot

Fratercula arctica

Atlantic Puffin


Annex 3
Action plan1)

1. Field of Application

  • 1.1 The Action Plan is applicable to the populations of migratory waterbirds listed in Table 1 to this Annex (hereafter referred to as “Table 1”).

  • 1.2 Table 1 forms an integral part of this Annex. Any reference to this Action Plan includes a reference to Table 1.

2. Species Conservation

  • 2.1 Legal measures

    • 2.1.1 Parties with populations listed in column A of Table 1 shall provide protection to those populations listed in accordance with Article III, paragraph 2(a), of this Agreement. Such Parties shall in particular and subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below:

      • a) prohibit the taking of birds and eggs of those populations occurring in their territory;

      • b) prohibit deliberate disturbance in so far as such disturbance would be significant for the conservation of the population concerned; and

      • c) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds or eggs of those populations which have been taken in contravention of the prohibitions laid down pursuant to subparagraph (a) above, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.

      By way of exception for those populations listed in Categories 2 and 3 in Column A only and which are marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice. This sustainable use shall be conducted within the framework of special provisions of a species action plan at the appropriate international level.

    • 2.1.2 Parties with populations listed in Table 1 shall regulate the taking of birds and eggs of all populations listed in column B of Table 1. The object of such legal measures shall be to maintain or contribute to the restoration of those populations to a favourable conservation status and to ensure, on the basis of the best available knowledge of population dynamics, that any taking or other use is sustainable. Such legal measures, subject to paragraph 2.1.3 below, shall in particular:

      • a) prohibit the taking of birds belonging to the populations concerned during their various stages of reproduction and rearing and during their return to their breeding grounds if the taking has an unfavourable impact on the conservation status of the population concerned;

      • b) regulate the modes of taking;

      • c) establish limits on taking, where appropriate, and provide adequate controls to ensure that these limits are observed; and

      • d) prohibit the possession or utilization of, and trade in, birds and eggs of the populations which have been taken in contravention of any prohibition laid down pursuant to the provisions of this paragraph, as well as the possession or utilization of, and trade in, any readily recognizable parts or derivatives of such birds and their eggs.

    • 2.1.3 Parties may grant exemptions to the prohibitions laid down in paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, irrespective of the provisions of Article III, paragraph 5, of the Convention, where there is no other satisfactory solution, for the following purposes:

      • a) to prevent serious damage to crops, water and fisheries;

      • b) in the interests of air safety or other overriding public interests;

      • c) for the purpose of research and education, of re-establishment and for the breeding necessary for these purposes;

      • d) to permit under strictly supervised conditions, on a selective basis and to a limited extent, the taking and keeping or other judicious use of certain birds in small numbers; and

      • e) for the purpose of enhancing the propagation or survival of the populations concerned.

        Such exemptions shall be precise as to content and limited in space and time and shall not operate to the detriment of the populations listed in Table 1. Parties shall as soon as possible inform the Agreement secretariat of any exemptions granted pursuant to this provision.

  • 2.2 Single Species Action Plans

    • 2.2.1 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing and implementing international single species action plans for populations listed in Category 1 of Column A of Table 1 as a priority and for those populations listed with an asterisk in Column A of Table 1. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development, harmonization and implementation of such plans.

    • 2.2.2 Parties shall prepare and implement national single species action plans for the populations listed in Column A of Table 1 with a view to improving their overall conservation status. This action plan shall include special provisions for those populations marked with an asterisk. When appropriate, the problem of accidental killing of birds by hunters as a result of incorrect identification of the species should be considered.

  • 2.3 Emergency Measures

    Parties shall, in close cooperation with each other whenever possible and relevant, develop and implement emergency measures for populations listed in Table 1, when exceptionally unfavourable or endangering conditions occur anywhere in the Agreement Area.

  • 2.4 Re-establishments

    Parties shall exercise the greatest care when re-establishing populations listed in Table 1 into parts of their traditional range where they no longer exist. They shall endeavour to develop and follow a detailed re-establishment plan based on appropriate scientific studies. Re-establishment plans should constitute an integral part of national and, where appropriate, international single species action plans. A re-establishment plan should include assessment of the impact on the environment and shall be made widely available. Parties shall inform the Agreement secretariat, in advance, of all re-establishment programme for populations listed in Table 1.

  • 2.5 Introductions

    • 2.5.1 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, prohibit the introduction of non-native species of animals and plants which may be detrimental to the populations listed in Table 1.

    • 2.5.2 Parties shall, if they consider it necessary, require the taking of appropriate precautions to avoid the accidental escape of captive birds belonging to non-native species.

    • 2.5.3 Parties shall take measures to the extent feasible and appropriate, including taking, to ensure that when non-native species or hybrids thereof have already been introduced into their territory, those species or their hybrids do not pose a potential hazard to the populations listed in Table 1.

3. Habitat Conservation

  • 3.1 Habitat Inventories

    • 3.1.1 Parties, in liaison where appropriate with competent international organizations, shall undertake and publish national inventories of the habitats within their territory which are important to the populations listed in Table 1.

    • 3.1.2 Parties shall endeavour, as a matter of priority, to identify all sites of international or national importance for populations listed in Table 1.

  • 3.2 Conservation of Areas

    • 3.2.1 Parties shall endeavour to continue establishing protected areas to conserve habitats important for the populations listed in Table 1, and to develop and implement management plans for these areas.

    • 3.2.2 Parties shall endeavour to give special protection to those wetlands which meet internationally accepted criteria of international importance.

    • 3.2.3 Parties shall endeavour to make wise and sustainable use of all of the wetlands in their territory. In particular they shall endeavour to avoid degradation and loss of habitats that support populations listed in Table 1 through the introduction of appropriate regulations or standards and control measures. In particular, they shall endeavour to:

      • a) ensure, where practicable, that adequate statutory controls are in place, relating to the use of agricultural chemicals, pest control procedures and the disposal of waste water, which are in accordance with international norms, for the purpose of minimizing their adverse impacts on the populations listed in Table 1; and

      • b) prepare and distribute information materials, in the appropriate languages, describing such regulations, standards and control measures in force and their benefits to people and wildlife.

    • 3.2.4 Parties shall endeavour to develop strategies, according to an ecosystem approach, for the conservation of the habitats of all populations listed in Table 1, including the habitats of those populations that are dispersed.

  • 3.3 Rehabilitation and Restoration

    Parties shall endeavour to rehabilitate or restore, where feasible and appropriate, areas which were previously important for the populations listed in Table 1.

4. Management of Human Activities

  • 4.1 Hunting

    • 4.1.1 Parties shall cooperate to ensure that their hunting legislation implements the principle of sustainable use as envisaged in this Action Plan, taking into account the full geographical range of the waterbird populations concerned and their life history characteristics.

    • 4.1.2 The Agreement secretariat shall be kept informed by the Parties of their legislation relating to the hunting of populations listed in Table 1.

    • 4.1.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing a reliable and harmonized system for the collection of harvest data in order to assess the annual harvest of populations listed in Table 1. They shall provide the Agreement secretariat with estimates of the total annual take for each population, when available.

    • 4.1.4 Parties shall endeavour to phase out the use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands as soon as possible in accordance with self-imposed and published timetables.

    • 4.1.5 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, the use of poisoned baits.

    • 4.1.6 Parties shall develop and implement measures to reduce, and as far as possible eliminate, illegal taking.

    • 4.1.7 Where appropriate, Parties shall encourage hunters, at local, national and international levels, to form clubs or organizations to coordinate their activities and to help ensure sustainability.

    • 4.1.8 Parties shall, where appropriate, promote the requirement of a proficiency test for hunters, including among other things, bird identification.

  • 4.2 Eco-tourism

    • 4.2.1 Parties shall encourage, where appropriate but not in the case of core zones of protected areas, the elaboration of cooperative programmes between all concerned to develop sensitive and appropriate eco-tourism at wetlands holding concentrations of populations listed in Table 1.

    • 4.2.2 Parties, in cooperation with competent international organisations, shall endeavour to evaluate the costs, benefits and other consequences that can result from eco-tourism at selected wetlands with concentrations of populations listed in Table 1. They shall communicate the results of any such evaluations to the Agreement secretariat.

  • 4.3 Other Human Activities

    • 4.3.1 Parties shall assess the impact of proposed projects which are likely to lead to conflicts between populations listed in Table 1 that are in the areas referred to in paragraph 3.2 and human interests, and shall make the results of the assessment publicly available.

    • 4.3.2 Parties shall endeavour to gather information on the damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries, caused by populations listed in Table 1, and report the results to the Agreement secretariat.

    • 4.3.3 Parties shall cooperate with a view to identifying appropriate techniques to minimize damage, or to mitigate the effects of damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries, caused by populations listed in Table 1, drawing on the experience gained elsewhere in the world.

    • 4.3.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing single species action plans for populations which cause significant damage, in particular to crops and to fisheries. The Agreement secretariat shall coordinate the development and harmonization of such plans.

    • 4.3.5 Parties shall, as far as possible, promote high environmental standards in the planning and construction of structures to minimize their impact on populations listed in Table 1. They should consider steps to minimize the impact of structures already in existence where it becomes evident that they constitute a negative impact for the populations concerned.

    • 4.3.6 In cases where human disturbance threatens the conservation status of waterbird populations listed in Table 1, Parties should endeavour to take measures to limit the level of threat. Special attention should be given to problem of human disturbance at breeding colonies of colonially-nesting waterbirds, especially when they are situated in the areas which are popular for outdoor recreation. Appropriate measures might include, inter alia, the establishment of disturbance-free zones in protected areas where public access is not permitted.

    • 4.3.7. Parties are urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries2) on migratory waterbirds, and where possible cooperate within these forums, in order to decrease the mortality in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction; appropriate measures shall especially address incidental killing and bycatch in fishing gear including the use of gill nets, longlines and trawling.

    • 4.3.8. Parties are also urged to take appropriate actions nationally or through the framework of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) and relevant international organisations to minimise the impact of fisheries on migratory waterbirds resulting in particular from unsustainable fishing that causes depletion of food resources for migratory waterbirds.

    • 4.3.9. Parties shall establish and effectively enforce adequate statutory pollution controls in accordance with international norms and legal agreements, particularly as related to oil spills, discharge and dumping of solid wastes, for the purpose of minimizing their impacts on the populations listed in Table 1.

    • 4.3.10. Parties shall establish appropriate measures, ideally to eliminate or otherwise to mitigate the threat from non-native terrestrial predators to breeding migratory waterbirds on islands and islets. Measures should refer to contingency planning to prevent invasion, emergency responses to remove introduced predators, and restoration programmes for islands where predator populations are already established.

    • 4.3.11. Parties are urged to establish appropriate measures to tackle threats to migratory waterbirds from aquaculture, including environmental assessment for developments that threaten wetlands of importance for waterbirds, especially when dealing with new or enlargement of existing installations, and involving issues such as pollution (e.g. from residues of pharmaceutical treatments used in aquaculture or eutrophication), habitat loss, entanglement risks, and introduction of non-native and potentially invasive species.”

5. Research and Monitoring

  • 5.1 Parties shall endeavour to carry out survey work in poorly known areas, which may hold important concentrations of the populations listed in Table 1. The results of such surveys shall be disseminated widely.

  • 5.2 Parties shall endeavour to monitor the populations listed in Table 1. The results of such monitoring shall be published or sent to appropriate international organizations, to enable reviews of population status and trends.

  • 5.3 Parties shall cooperate to improve the measurement of bird population trends as a criterion for describing the status of such populations.

  • 5.4 Parties shall cooperate with a view to determining the migration routes of all populations listed in Table 1, using available knowledge of breeding and non-breeding season distributions and census results, and by participating in coordinated ringing programmes.

  • 5.5 Parties shall endeavour to initiate and support joint research projects into the ecology and population dynamics of populations listed in Table 1 and their habitats, in order to determine their specific requirements as well as the techniques which are the most appropriate for their conservation and management.

  • 5.6 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the effects of wetland loss and degradation and disturbance on the carrying capacity of wetlands used by the populations listed in Table 1 and on the migration patterns of such populations.

  • 5.7 Parties shall endeavour to undertake studies on the impact of hunting and trade on the populations listed in Table 1 and on the importance of these forms of utilization to the local and national economy.

  • 5.8 Parties shall endeavour to cooperate with relevant international organisations and to support research and monitoring projects.

6. Education and Information

  • 6.1 Parties shall, where necessary, arrange for training programmes to ensure that personnel responsible for the implementation of this Action Plan have an adequate knowledge to implement it effectively.

  • 6.2 Parties shall cooperate with each other and the Agreement secretariat with a view to developing training programmes and exchanging resource materials.

  • 6.3 Parties shall endeavour to develop programmes, information materials and mechanisms to improve the level of awareness of the general public with regard to the objectives, provisions and contents of this Action Plan. In this regard, particular attention shall be given to those people living in and around important wetlands, to users of these wetlands (hunters, fishermen, tourists, etc.) and to local authorities and other decision makers.

  • 6.4 Parties shall endeavour to undertake specific public awareness campaigns for the conservation of the populations listed in Table 1.

7. Implementation

  • 7.1 When implementing this Action Plan, Parties shall, when appropriate, give priority to those populations listed in Column A of Table 1.

  • 7.2 Where, in the case of populations listed in Table 1, more than one population of the same species occurs on the territory of a Party, that Party shall apply conservation measures appropriate to the population or populations that have the poorest conservation status.

  • 7.3 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and with the assistance of experts from Range States, shall coordinate the development of conservation guidelines in accordance with Article IV, paragraph 4, of this Agreement to assist the Parties in the implementation of this Action Plan. The Agreement secretariat shall ensure, where possible, coherence with guidelines approved under other international instruments. These conservation guidelines shall aim at introducing the principle of sustainable use. They shall cover, inter alia:

    • a) single species action plans;

    • b) emergency measures;

    • c) preparation of site inventories and habitat management methods;

    • d) hunting practices;

    • e) trade in waterbirds;

    • f) tourism;

    • g) reducing crop damage; and

    • h) a waterbird monitoring protocol.

  • 7.4 The Agreement secretariat, in coordination with the Technical Committee and the Parties, shall prepare a series of international reviews necessary for the implementation of this Action Plan, including:

    • a) reports on the status and trends of populations;

    • b) gaps in information from surveys;

    • c) the networks of sites used by each population, including reviews of the protection status of each site as well as of the management measures taken in each case;

    • d) pertinent hunting and trade legislation in each country relating to the species listed in Annex 2 to this Agreement;

    • e) the stage of preparation and implementation of single species action plans;

    • f) re-establishment projects; and

    • g) the status of introduced non-native waterbird species and hybrids thereof.

  • 7.5 The Agreement secretariat shall endeavour to ensure that the reviews mentioned in paragraph 7.4 are updated at the following intervals:

    (a) every session of the Meeting of the Parties; (b) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (c) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (d) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties; (e) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties; (f) – every third session of the Meeting of the Parties; (g) – every second session of the Meeting of the Parties.

  • 7.6 The Technical Committee shall assess the guidelines and reviews prepared under paragraphs 7.3 and 7.4, and shall formulate draft recommendations and resolutions relating to their development, content and implementation for consideration at sessions of the Meeting of the Parties.

  • 7.7 The Agreement secretariat shall regularly undertake a review of potential mechanisms for providing additional resources (funds and technical assistance) for the implementation of this Action Plan, and shall make a report to each ordinary session of the Meeting of the Parties.


Table 11)
Status of the populations of migratory waterbirds Key to classification

The following key to Table 1 is a basis for implementation of the Action Plan:

Column A

   

Category 1:

(a) Species which are included in Appendix I to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory species of Wild Animals;

 

(b) Species which are listed as threatened on the IUCN Red list of Threatened Species, as reported in the most recent summary by BirdLife International; or

 

(c) Populations, which number less than around 10,000 individuals.

   

Category 2:

Populations numbering between around 10,000 and around 25,000 individuals.

   

Category 3:

Populations numbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individuals and considered to be at risk as a result of:

 

(a) Concentration onto a small number of sites at any stage of their annual cycle;

 

(b) Dependence on a habitat type, which is under severe threat;

 

(c) Showing significant long-term decline; or

 

(d) Showing extreme fluctuations in population size or trend.

   

For species listed in categories 2 and 3 above, see paragraph 2.1.1 of the Action Plan contained in Annex 3 to the Agreement.

Column B

   

Category 1:

Populations numbering between around 25,000 and around 100,000 individuals and which do not fulfil the conditions in respect of column A, as described above.

   

Category 2:

Populations numbering more than around 100,000 individuals and considered to be in need of special attention as a result of:

 

(a) Concentration onto a small number of sites at any stage of their annual cycle;

 

(b) Dependence on a habitat type, which is under severe threat;

 

(c) Showing significant long-term decline; or

 

(d) Showing extreme fluctuations in population size or trend.

   

Column C

   

Category 1:

Populations numbering more than around 100,000 individuals which could significantly benefit from international cooperation and which do not fulfil the conditions in respect of either column A or column B, above.

Review of table 1

The Table shall be:

  • (a) Reviewed regularly by the Technical Committee in accordance with article VII, paragraph 3(b), of the Agreement; and

  • (b) Amended as necessary by the Meeting of the Parties, in accordance with article VI, paragraph 9(d) of the Agreement, in light of the conclusions of such reviews.

Definition of geographical terms used in range descriptions 2)

North Africa

Algeria, Egypt, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Tunisia.

   

West Africa

Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Côte d’Ivoire, the Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo.

   

Eastern Africa

Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania.

   

North-west Africa

Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.

   

North-east Africa

Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan.

   

Southern Africa

Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

   

Central Africa

Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe.

   

Sub-Saharan Africa

All African states south of the Sahara.

   

Tropical Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa excluding Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.

   

Western Palearctic

As defined in Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (Cramp & Simmons 1977).

   

North-west Europe

Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

   

Western Europe

North-west Europe with Portugal and Spain.

   

North-east Europe

The northern part of the Russian Federation west of the Urals.

   

North Europe

North-west Europe and North-east Europe, as defined above.

   

Eastern Europe

Belarus, the Russian Federation west of the Urals, Ukraine.

   

Central Europe

Austria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Poland, the Russian Federation around the Gulf of Finland and Kaliningrad, Slovakia, Switzerland.

   

South-west Europe

France, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Portugal, San Marino, Spain

   

South-east Europe

Albania, Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, FYR Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey.

   

North Atlantic

Faroes, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, the north-west coast of the Russian Federation, Svalbard, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

   

East Atlantic

Atlantic seaboard of Europe and North Africa from northern Norway to Morocco.

   

Western Siberia

The Russian Federation east of the Urals to the Yenisey River and south to the Kazakhstan border.

   

Central Siberia

The Russian Federation from the Yenisey River to the eastern boundary of the Taimyr Peninsula and south to the Altai Mountains.

   

West Mediterranean

Algeria, France, Italy, Malta, Monaco, Morocco, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Tunisia.

   

East Mediterranean

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Israel, Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, the Syrian Arab Republic, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey.

   

Black Sea

Armenia, Bulgaria, Georgia, Republic of Moldova, Romania, the Russian Federation, Turkey, Ukraine.

   

Caspian

Azerbaijan, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, South-west Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

   

South-west Asia

Bahrain, Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the Syrian Arab Republic, eastern Turkey, Turkmenistan, the United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.

   

Gulf

the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea west to the Gulf of Aden.

   

Western Asia

Western parts of the Russian Federation east of the Urals and the Caspian countries.

   

Central Asia

Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

   

Southern Asia

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

   

Indian Ocean

Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius and Seychelles.

Key to abbreviations and symbols

bre:

breeding

win:

wintering

N:

Northern

E:

Eastern

S:

Southern

W:

Western

NE:

North-eastern

NW:

North-western

SE:

South-eastern

SW:

South-western

       

()

Population status unknown. Conservation status estimated.

 

*

By way of exception for those populations marked by an asterisk, hunting may continue on a sustainable use basis where hunting of such populations is a long-established cultural practice (see paragraph 2.1.1 of Annex 3 to the Agreement).

Notes

  • 1. The population data used to compile Table 1 as far as possible correspond to the number of individuals in the potential breeding stock in the Agreement area. The status is based on the best available published population estimates.

  • 2. Suffixes (bre) or (win) in population listings are solely aids to population identification. They do not indicate seasonal restrictions to actions in respect of these populations under the Agreement and Action Plan.

  • 3. The brief descriptions used to identify the populations are based on the descriptions used in the fourth edition of Waterbird Population Estimates and the Handbook of the Birds of the World.

  • 4. Slash signs (/) are used to separate breeding areas from wintering areas.

  • 5. Where a species’ population is listed in Table 1 with multiple categorisations, the obligations of the Action Plan relate to the strictest category listed.

     

    A

    B

    C

           

    SPHENISCIDAE

         

    Spheniscus demersus

         

    – Southern Africa

    1b

    2a 2c

     
           

    GAVIIDAE

         

    Gavia stellata

         

    – North-west Europe (win)

     

    2c

     

    – Caspian, Black Sea & East Mediterranean (win)

     

    (1)

     

    Gavia arctica arctica

         

    – Northern Europe & Western Siberia/Europe

     

    2c

     

    Gavia arctica suschkini

         

    – Central Siberia/Caspian

       

    (1)

    Gavia immer

         

    – Europe (win)

    1c

       

    Gavia adamsii

         

    – Northern Europe (win)

    1c

       
           

    PODICIPEDIDAE

         

    Tachybaptus ruficollis ruficollis

         

    – Europe & North-west Africa

       

    1

    Podiceps cristatus cristatus

         

    – North-west & Western Europe

     

    2c

     

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)

     

    2c

     

    – Caspian & South-west Asia (win)

    2

       

    Podiceps cristatus infuscatus

         

    – Eastern Africa (Ethiopia to N Zambia)

    1c

       

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       

    Podiceps grisegena grisegena

         

    – North-west Europe (win)

    3c

       

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)

    3c

       

    – Caspian (win)

    2

       

    Podiceps auritus auritus

         

    – North-west Europe (large-billed)

    1c

       

    – North-east Europe (small-billed)

    2

       

    – Caspian & South Asia (win)

    2

       

    Podiceps nigricollis nigricollis

         

    – Europe/South & West Europe & North Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Western Asia/South-west & South Asia

     

    1

     

    Podiceps nigricollis gurneyi

         

    – Southern Africa

    2

       
           

    PHAETHONTIDAE

         

    Phaethon aetheras aetheras

         

    – South Atlantic

    1c

       

    Phaethon aetheras indicus

         

    – Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea

    1c

       

    Phaethon rubricauda rubricauda

         

    – Indian Ocean

    1c

       

    Phaethon lepturus lepturus

         

    – Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Red Sea

    1c

       
           

    PELECANIDAE

         

    Pelecanus onocrotalus

         

    – Southern Africa

     

    1

     

    – West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Eastern Africa

       

    1

    – Europe & Western Asia (bre)

    1a 3c

       

    Pelecanus rufescens

         

    – Tropical Africa & SW Arabia

     

    1

     

    Pelecanus crispus

         

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)

    1a 1c

       

    – South-west Asia & South Asia (win)

    1a 1c

       
           

    SULIDAE

         

    Sula (Morus) bassana

     

    2a

     

    Sula (Morus) capensis

         

    – Southern Africa

    1b

    2a 2c

     

    Sula dactylatra melanops

         

    W Indian Ocean

    1c

       
           

    PHALACROCORACIDAE

         

    Phalacrocorax coronatus

         

    – Coastal South-west Africa

    1c

       

    Phalacrocorax pygmeus

         

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – South-west Asia

     

    1

     

    Phalacrocorax neglectus

         

    – Coastal South-west Africa

    1b 2

       

    Phalacrocorax carbo carbo

         

    – North-west Europe

       

    1

    Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis

         

    – Northern & Central Europe

       

    1

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean

       

    1

    – West & South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus

         

    – Coastal West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Central & Eastern Africa

       

    1

    – Coastal Southern Africa

    2

       

    Phalacrocorax nigrogularis

         

    – Arabian Coast

    1b

    2a 2c

     

    – Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Arabian Sea

    1b

    1

     

    Phalacrocorax capensis

         

    – Coastal Southern Africa

     

    2a 2c

     
           

    FREGATIDAE

         

    Fregata minor aldabrensis

         

    – W Indian Ocean

    1c

       

    Fregata ariel iredalei

         

    – W Indian Ocean

    1c

       
           

    ARDEIDAE

         

    Egretta ardesiaca

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    1

     

    Egretta vinaceigula

         

    – South-central Africa

    1b 1c

       

    Egretta garzetta garzetta

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    (1)

    – Western Europe, NW Africa

       

    1

    – Central & E Europe, Black Sea, E Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – Western Asia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Egretta gularis gularis

         

    – West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Egretta gularis schistacea

         

    – North-east Africa & Red Sea

     

    (1)

     

    – South-west Asia & South Asia

    2

       

    Egretta dimorpha

         

    – Coastal Eastern Africa

    2

       

    Ardea cinerea cinerea

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    – Northern & Western Europe

       

    1

    – Central & Eastern Europe

       

    1

    – West & South-west Asia (bre)

       

    (1)

    Ardea melanocephala

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    (1)

    Ardea purpurea purpurea

         

    – Tropical Africa

     

    1

     

    – West Europe & West Mediterranean/West Africa

    2

       

    – East Europe & South-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (2c)

     

    Casmerodius albus albus

         

    – W, C & SE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – Western Asia/South-west Asia

     

    (1)

     

    Casmerodius albus melanorhynchos

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa & Madagascar

       

    (1)

    Mesophoyx intermedia brachyrhyncha

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    1

     

    Bubulcus ibis ibis

         

    – Southern Africa

       

    1

    – Tropical Africa

       

    1

    – South-west Europe

       

    1

    – North-west Africa

       

    1

    – East Mediterranean & South-west Asia

     

    1

     

    Ardeola ralloides ralloides

         

    – SW Europe, NW Africa (bre)

    1c

       

    – C & E Europe/Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)

     

    1

     

    – West & South-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Ardeola ralloides paludivaga

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa & Madagascar

       

    (1)

    Ardeola idae

         

    – Madagascar & Aldabra/Central & Eastern Africa

    1b 1c

       

    Ardeola rufiventris

         

    – Tropical Eastern & Southern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa & Madagascar

       

    1

    – W Europe, NW Africa (bre)

    3c

       

    – C & E Europe/Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)

     

    2c

     

    – Western Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Ixobrychus minutus minutus

         

    W Europe, NW Africa/Subsaharan Africa

    2

       

    C & E Europe, Black Sea & E Mediterranean/Subsaharan Africa

     

    2c

     

    – West & South-west Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Ixobrychus minutus payesii

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Ixobrychus sturmii

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Botaurus stellaris stellaris

         

    W Europe, NW Africa (bre)

    1c

       

    C & E Europe, Black Sea & E Mediterranean (bre)

     

    2c

     

    – South-west Asia (win)

     

    1

     

    Botaurus stellaris capensis

         

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       
           

    CICONIIDAE

         

    Mycteria ibis

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Madagascar)

     

    1

     

    Anastomus lamelligerus lamelligerus

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    Ciconia nigra

         

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       

    – South-west Europe/West Africa

    1c

       

    – Central & Eastern Europe/Sub-Saharan Africa

    2

       

    Ciconia abdimii

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa & SW Arabia

     

    (2c)

     

    Ciconia episcopus microscelis

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Ciconia ciconia ciconia

         

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       

    – Iberia & North-west Africa/Sub-Saharan Africa

    3b

       

    – Central & Eastern Europe/Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    – Western Asia/South-west Asia

    2

       

    Leptoptilos crumeniferus

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

           

    BALAENICIPITIDAE

         

    Balaeniceps rex

         

    – Central Tropical Africa

    1c

       
           

    THRESKIORNITHIDAE

         

    Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa (bre)

       

    1

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean/West Africa

    3c

       

    – South-west Asia/Eastern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Geronticus eremita

         

    – Morocco

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – South-west Asia

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Threskiornis aethiopicus aethiopicus

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    – Iraq & Iran

    1c

       

    Platalea leucorodia leucorodia

         

    – West Europe/West Mediterranean & West Africa

    2

       

    – Cent. & SE Europe/Mediterranean & Tropical Africa

    2

       

    Platalea leucorodia archeri

         

    – Red Sea & Somalia

    1c

       

    Platalea leucorodia balsaci

         

    – Coastal West Africa (Mauritania)

    1c

       

    Platalea leucorodia major

         

    – Western Asia/South-west & South Asia

    2

       

    Platalea alba

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

     

    1

     
           

    PHOENICOPTERIDAE

         

    Phoenicopterus roseus

         

    – West Africa

    3a

       

    – Eastern Africa

    3a

       

    – Southern Africa (to Madagascar)

    3a

       

    – West Mediterranean

     

    2a

     

    – East Mediterranean

    3a

       

    – South-west & South Asia

     

    2a

     

    Phoeniconaias minor

         

    – West Africa

    2

       

    – Eastern Africa

     

    2a 2c

     

    – Southern Africa (to Madagascar)

    3a

       
           

    ANATIDAE

         

    Dendrocygna bicolor

         

    – West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

     

    1

     

    – Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    (1)

    Dendrocygna viduata

         

    – West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

       

    1

    – Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    1

    Thalassornis leuconotus leuconotus

         

    – West Africa

    1c

       

    – Eastern & Southern Africa

    2*

       

    Oxyura leucocephala

         

    – West Mediterranean (Spain & Morocco)

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – Algeria & Tunisia

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – East Mediterranean, Turkey & South-west Asia

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Oxyura maccoa

         

    – Eastern Africa

    1c

       

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       

    Cygnus olor

         

    – North-west Mainland & Central Europe

       

    1

    – Black Sea

     

    1

     

    – West & Central Asia/Caspian

     

    2a 2d

     

    Cygnus cygnus

         

    – Iceland/UK & Ireland

    2

       

    – North-west Mainland Europe

     

    1

     

    – N Europe & W Siberia/Black Sea & E Mediterranean

    2

       

    – West & Central Siberia/Caspian

    2

       

    Cygnus columbianus bewickii

         

    – Western Siberia & NE Europe/North-west Europe

    2

       

    – Northern Siberia/Caspian

    1c

       

    Anser brachyrhynchus

         

    – East Greenland & Iceland/UK

     

    2a

     

    – Svalbard/North-west Europe

     

    1

     

    Anser fabalis fabalis

         

    – North-east Europe/North-west Europe

     

    1

     

    Anser fabalis rossicus

         

    – West & Central Siberia/NE & SW Europe

       

    (1)

    Anser fabalis johanseni

         

    – West & Central Siberia/Turkmenistan to W China

       

    (1)

    Anser albifrons albifrons

         

    – NW Siberia & NE Europe/North-west Europe

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/Central Europe

    3c*

       

    – Western Siberia/Black Sea & Turkey

       

    1

    – Northern Siberia/Caspian & Iraq

    2

       

    Anser albifrons flavirostris

         

    – Greenland/Ireland & UK

    2*

       

    Anser erythropus

         

    – N Europe & W Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian

    1a 1b 2

       

    Anser anser anser

         

    – Iceland/UK & Ireland

     

    1

     

    – NW Europe/South-west Europe

       

    1

    – Central Europe/North Africa

     

    1

     

    Anser anser rubrirostris

         

    – Black Sea & Turkey

     

    1

     

    – Western Siberia/Caspian & Iraq

       

    1

    Branta leucopsis

         

    – East Greenland/Scotland & Ireland

     

    1

     

    – Svalbard/South-west Scotland

     

    1

     

    – Russia/Germany & Netherlands

       

    1

    Branta bernicla bernicla

         

    – Western Siberia/Western Europe

     

    2b 2c

     

    Branta bernicla hrota

         

    – Svalbard/Denmark & UK

    1c

       

    – Canada & Greenland/Ireland

    2

       

    Branta ruficollis

         

    – Northern Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian

    1a 1b 3a 3c

       

    Alopochen aegyptiacus

         

    – West Africa

    1c

       

    – Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    1

    Tadorna ferruginea

         

    – North-west Africa

    1c

       

    – East Mediterranean & Black Sea/North-east Africa

    2

       

    – Western Asia & Caspian/Iran & Iraq

     

    1

     

    Tadorna cana

         

    – Southern Africa

     

    1

     

    Tadorna tadorna

         

    – North-west Europe

     

    2a

     

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean

    3c

       

    – Western Asia/Caspian & Middle East

     

    1

     

    Plectropterus gambensis gambensis

         

    – West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Eastern Africa (Sudan to Zambia)

       

    1

    Plectropterus gambensis niger

         

    – Southern Africa

     

    1

     

    Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos

         

    – West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    1

    Nettapus auritus

         

    – West Africa

    1c

       

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Anas capensis

         

    – Eastern Africa (Rift Valley)

    1c

       

    – Lake Chad basin2

    1c

       

    – Southern Africa (N to Angola & Zambia)

       

    1

    Anas strepera strepera

         

    – North-west Europe

     

    1

     

    – North-east Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

     

    2c

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    (1)

    Anas penelope

         

    – Western Siberia & NE Europe/NW Europe

       

    1

    – W Siberia & NE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

     

    2c

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    2c

     

    Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos

         

    – North-west Europe

       

    1

    – Northern Europe/West Mediterranean

       

    1

    – Eastern Europe/Black Sea & East Mediterranean

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Anas undulata undulata

         

    – Southern Africa

       

    1

    Anas clypeata

         

    – North-west & Central Europe (win)

     

    1

     

    – W Siberia, NE & E Europe/S Europe & West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – W Siberia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

     

    2c

     

    Anas erythrorhyncha

         

    – Southern Africa

       

    1

    – Eastern Africa

       

    1

    – Madagascar

    2

       

    Anas acuta

         

    – North-west Europe

     

    1

     

    – W Siberia, NE & E Europe/S Europe & West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Anas querquedula

         

    – Western Siberia & Europe/West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Anas crecca crecca

         

    – North-west Europe

       

    1

    – W Siberia & NE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    2c

     

    Anas hottentota

         

    – Lake Chad Basin

    1c

       

    – Eastern Africa (south to N Zambia)

     

    1

     

    – Southern Africa (north to S Zambia)

     

    1

     

    Marmaronetta angustirostris

         

    – West Mediterranean/West Medit. & West Africa

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – East Mediterranean

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – South-west Asia

    1a 1b 2

       

    Netta rufina

         

    – South-west & Central Europe/West Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – Black Sea & East Mediterranean

    3c

       

    – Western & Central Asia/South-west Asia

       

    1

    Netta erythrophthalma brunnea

         

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

     

    1

     

    Aythya ferina

         

    – North-east Europe/North-west Europe

       

    1

    – Central & NE Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia

     

    2c

     

    Aythya nyroca

         

    – West Mediterranean/North & West Africa

    1a 1c

       

    – Eastern Europe/E Mediterranean & Sahelian Africa

    1a 3c

       

    – Western Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

    1a 3c

       

    Aythya fuligula

         

    – North-west Europe (win)

       

    1

    – Central Europe, Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    (1)

    Aythya marila marila

         

    – Northern Europe/Western Europe

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian

       

    1

    Somateria mollissima mollissima

         

    – Baltic, Denmark & Netherlands

     

    2d

     

    – Norway & Russia

       

    1

    Somateria mollissima borealis

         

    – Svalbard & Franz Joseph (bre)

     

    1

     

    Somateria spectabilis

         

    – East Greenland, NE Europe & Western Siberia

       

    1

    Polysticta stelleri

         

    – Western Siberia/North-east Europe

    1a 2

       

    Clangula hyemalis

         

    – Iceland & Greenland

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/North Europe

       

    1

    Melanitta nigra nigra

         

    – W Siberia & N Europe/W Europe & NW Africa

     

    2a

     

    Melanitta fusca fusca

         

    – Western Siberia & Northern Europe/NW Europe

     

    2a

     

    – Black Sea & Caspian

    1c

       

    Bucephala clangula clangula

         

    – North-west & Central Europe (win)

       

    1

    – North-east Europe/Adriatic

       

    1

    – Western Siberia & North-east Europe/Black Sea

     

    1

     

    – Western Siberia/Caspian

       

    1

    Mergellus albellus

         

    – North-west & Central Europe (win)

    3a

       

    – North-east Europe/Black Sea & East Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia

     

    1

     

    Mergus serrator serrator

         

    – North-west & Central Europe (win)

       

    1

    – North-east Europe/Black Sea & Mediterranean

     

    1

     

    – Western Siberia/South-west & Central Asia

    1c

       

    Mergus merganser merganser

         

    – North-west & Central Europe (win)

       

    1

    – North-east Europe/Black Sea

    1c

       

    – Western Siberia/Caspian

    2

       
           

    GRUIDAE

         

    Balearica pavonina pavonina

         

    – West Africa (Senegal to Chad)

    2

       

    Balearica pavonina ceciliae

         

    – Eastern Africa (Sudan to Uganda)

    3c

       

    Balearica regulorum regulorum

         

    – Southern Africa (N to Angola & S Zimbabwe)

    1c

       

    Balearica regulorum gibbericeps

         

    – Eastern Africa (Kenya to Mozambique)

    3c

       

    Grus leucogeranus

         

    – Iran (win)

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Grus virgo

         

    – Black Sea (Ukraine)/North-east Africa

    1c

       

    – Turkey (bre)

    1c

       

    – Kalmykia/North-east Africa

     

    1

     

    Grus paradisea

         

    – Extreme Southern Africa

    1b

    1

     

    Grus carunculatus

         

    – Central & Southern Africa

    1b 1c

       

    Grus grus

         

    – North-west Europe/Iberia & Morocco

       

    1

    – North-east & Central Europe/North Africa

     

    1

     

    – Eastern Europe/Turkey, Middle East & NE Africa

    3c

       

    – Turkey & Georgia (bre)

    1c

       

    – Western Siberia/South Asia

     

    (1)

     
           

    RALLIDAE

         

    Sarothrura elegans elegans

         

    – NE, Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    (1)

    Sarothrura elegans reichenovi

         

    – S West Africa to Central Africa

       

    (1)

    Sarothrura boehmi

         

    – Central Africa

    1c

       

    Sarothrura ayresi

         

    – Ethiopia

    1a 1b 1c

       

    – Southern Africa

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Rallus aquaticus aquaticus

         

    – Europe & North Africa

     

    2c

     

    Rallus aquaticus korejewi

         

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Rallus caerulescens

         

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Crecopsis egregia

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    (1)

    Crex crex

         

    – Europe & Western Asia/Sub-Saharan Africa

    1b

    2c

     

    Amaurornis flavirostris

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    Porzana parva parva

         

    – Western Eurasia/Africa

     

    2c

     

    Porzana pusilla intermedia

         

    – Europe (bre)

    1c

       

    Porzana porzana

         

    – Europe/Africa

     

    2d

     

    Aenigmatolimnas marginalis

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

    (2)

       

    Porphyrio alleni

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    (1)

    Gallinula chloropus chloropus

         

    – Europe & North Africa

       

    1

    – West & South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Gallinula angulata

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    (1)

    Fulica cristata

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa

       

    1

    – Spain & Morocco

    1c

       

    Fulica atra atra

         

    – North-west Europe (win)

       

    1

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean (win)

       

    1

    – South-west Asia (win)

       

    (1)

           

    DROMADIDAE

         

    Dromas ardeola

         

    – North-west Indian Ocean, Red Sea & Gulf

    3a

       
           

    HAEMATOPODIDAE

         

    Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus

         

    – Europe/South & West Europe & NW Africa

       

    1

    Haematopus ostralegus longipes

         

    – SE Eur & W Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    2c

     

    Haematopus moquini

         

    – Coastal Southern Africa

    1c

       
           

    RECURVIROSTRIDAE

         

    Himantopus himantopus himantopus

         

    – Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding south)

       

    (1)

    – Southern Africa (“meridionalis”)

    2

       

    – SW Europe & North-west Africa/West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Central Europe & E Mediterranean/N-Central Africa

     

    1

     

    – W, C & SW Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Recurvirostra avosetta

         

    – Southern Africa

    2

       

    – Eastern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    – Western Europe & North-west Africa (bre)

     

    1

     

    – South-east Europe, Black Sea & Turkey (bre)

    (3c)

       

    – West & South-west Asia/Eastern Africa

    2

       
           

    BURHINIDAE

         

    Burhinus senegalensis senegalensis

         

    – West Africa

    (2)

       

    Burhinus senegalensis inornatus

         

    – North-east & Eastern Africa

    (2)

       
           

    GLAREOLIDAE

         

    Pluvianus aegyptius aegyptius

         

    – West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    – Eastern Africa

    (2)

       

    – Lower Congo Basin

    2

       

    Glareola pratincola pratincola

         

    – Western Europe & NW Africa/West Africa

    2

       

    – Black Sea & E Mediterranean/Eastern Sahel zone

    2

       

    – SW Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Glareola nordmanni

         

    – SE Europe & Western Asia/Southern Africa

     

    2b 2c

     

    Glareola ocularis

         

    – Madagascar/East Africa

    1c

       

    Glareola nuchalis nuchalis

         

    – Eastern & Central Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Glareola nuchalis liberiae

         

    – West Africa

       

    1

    Glareola cinerea cinerea

         

    – SE West Africa & Central Africa

    (2)

       
           

    CHARADRIIDAE

         

    Pluvialis apricaria apricaria

         

    – Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Germany & Baltic (bre)

     

    2c

     

    Pluvialis apricaria altifrons

         

    – Iceland & Faroes/East Atlantic coast

       

    1

    – Northern Europe/Western Europe & NW Africa

       

    1

    – Northern Siberia/Caspian & Asia Minor

     

    (1)

     

    Pluvialis fulva

         

    – North-central Siberia/South & SW Asia, NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Pluvialis squatarola

         

    – W Siberia & Canada/W Europe & W Africa

       

    1

    – C & E Siberia/SW Asia, Eastern & Southern Africa

     

    1

     

    Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula

         

    – Northern Europe/Europe & North Africa

     

    1

     

    Charadrius hiaticula psammodroma

         

    – Canada, Greenland & Iceland/W & S Africa

     

    (2c)

     

    Charadrius hiaticula tundrae

         

    – NE Europe & Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    (1)

    Charadrius dubius curonicus

         

    – Europe & North-west Africa/West Africa

       

    1

    – West & South-west Asia/Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Charadrius pecuarius pecuarius

         

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    – West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris

         

    – Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    1

    Charadrius forbesi

         

    – Western & Central Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Charadrius pallidus pallidus

         

    – Southern Africa

    2

       

    Charadrius pallidus venustus

         

    – Eastern Africa

    1c

       

    Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus

         

    – West Europe & West Mediterranean/West Africa

    3c

       

    – Black Sea & East Mediterranean/Eastern Sahel

    3c

       

    – SW & Central Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Charadrius marginatus mechowi

         

    – mechowi/tenellus Inland East & Central Africa

    2

       

    – Coastal E Africa

    2

       

    – West Africa

    2

       

    Charadrius mongolus pamirensis

         

    – West-central Asia/SW Asia & Eastern Africa

       

    1

    Charadrius leschenaultii columbinus

         

    – Turkey & SW Asia/E. Mediterranean & Red Sea

    1c

       

    Charadrius leschenaultii crassirostris

         

    – Caspian & SW Asia/Arabia & NE Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Charadrius leschenaultii leschenaultii

         

    – Central Asia/Eastern & Southern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Charadrius asiaticus

         

    – SE Europe & West Asia/E & South-central Africa

    3c

       

    Eudromias morinellus

         

    – Europe/North-west Africa

    (3c)

       

    – Asia/Middle East

     

    (1)

     

    Vanellus vanellus

         

    – Europe/Europe & North Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Western Asia/South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Vanellus spinosus

         

    – Black Sea & Mediterranean (bre)

     

    1

     

    Vanellus albiceps

         

    – West & Central Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Vanellus senegallus senegallus

         

    – West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Vanellus senegallus solitaneus

         

    – South-west Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Vanellus senegallus lateralis

         

    – Eastern & South-east Africa

     

    1

     

    Vanellus lugubris

         

    – Southern West Africa

    2

       

    – Central & Eastern Africa

    3c

       

    Vanellus melanopterus minor

         

    – Southern Africa

    1c

       

    Vanellus coronatus coronatus

         

    – Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    1

    – Central Africa

    (2)

       

    Vanellus coronatus xerophilus

         

    – South-west Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Vanellus superciliosus

         

    – West & Central Africa

    (2)

       

    Vanellus gregarius

         

    – SE Europe & Western Asia/North-east Africa

    1a 1b 2

       

    – Central Asian Republics/NW India

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Vanellus leucurus

         

    – SW Asia/SW Asia & North-east Africa

    2

       

    – Central Asian Republics/South Asia

     

    (1)

     
           

    SCOLOPACIDAE

         

    Scolopax rusticola

         

    – Europe/South & West Europe & North Africa

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia (Caspian)

       

    (1)

    Gallinago stenura

         

    – Northern Siberia/South Asia & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Gallinago media

         

    – Scandinavia/probably West Africa

     

    1

     

    – Western Siberia & NE Europe/South-east Africa

     

    2c

     

    Gallinago gallinago gallinago

         

    – Europe/South & West Europe & NW Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Western Siberia/South-west Asia & Africa

       

    1

    Gallinago gallinago faeroeensis

         

    – Iceland, Faroes & Northern Scotland/Ireland

       

    1

    Lymnocryptes minimus

         

    – Northern Europe/S & W Europe & West Africa

     

    2b

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    1

    Limosa limosa limosa

         

    – Western Europe/NW & West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Eastern Europe/Central & Eastern Africa

     

    2c

     

    – West-central Asia/SW Asia & Eastern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Limosa limosa islandica

         

    – Iceland/Western Europe

    3a*

       

    Limosa lapponica lapponica

         

    – Northern Europe/Western Europe

     

    2a

     

    Limosa lapponica taymyrensis

         

    – Western Siberia/West & South-west Africa

     

    2a 2c

     

    Limosa lapponica menzbieri

         

    – Central Siberia/South & SW Asia & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Numenius phaeopus phaeopus

         

    – Northern Europe/West Africa

       

    (1)

    – West Siberia/Southern & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Numenius phaeopus islandicus

         

    – Iceland, Faroes & Scotland/West Africa

       

    1

    Numenius phaeopus alboaxillaris

         

    – South-west Asia/Eastern Africa

    1c

       

    Numenius tenuirostris

         

    – Central Siberia/Mediterranean & SW Asia

    1a 1b 1c

       

    Numenius arquata arquata

         

    – Europe/Europe, North & West Africa

       

    1

    Numenius arquata orientalis

         

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

    3c

       

    Numenius arquata suschkini

         

    – South-east Europe & South-west Asia (bre)

    2

       

    Tringa erythropus

         

    – N Europe/Southern Europe, North & West Africa

       

    (1)

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Tringa totanus totanus

         

    Northern Europe (breeding)

       

    1

    Central & East Europe (breeding)

     

    2c

     

    Tringa totanus britannica

         

    – Britain & Ireland/Britain, Ireland, France

     

    2c

     

    Tringa totanus ussuriensis

         

    – Western Asia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Tringa totanus robusta

         

    – Iceland & Faroes/Western Europe

       

    1

    Tringa stagnatilis

         

    – Eastern Europe/West & Central Africa

     

    (1)

     

    – Western Asia/SW Asia, Eastern & Southern Africa

     

    (1)

     

    Tringa nebularia

         

    – Northern Europe/SW Europe, NW & West Africa

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    (1)

    Tringa ochropus

         

    – Northern Europe/S & W Europe, West Africa

       

    1

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, NE & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Tringa glareola

         

    – North-west Europe/West Africa

       

    1

    – NE Europe & W Siberia/Eastern & Southern Africa

       

    (1)

    Tringa cinerea

         

    – NE Europe & W Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    1

    Tringa hypoleucos

         

    – West & Central Europe/West Africa

       

    1

    – E Europe & W Siberia/Central, E & S Africa

       

    (1)

    Arenaria interpres interpres

         

    – NE Canada & Greenland/W Europe & NW Africa

     

    1

     

    – Northern Europe/West Africa

       

    1

    – West & Central Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    (1)

    Calidris tenuirostris

         

    – Eastern Siberia/SW Asia & W Southern Asia

    1c

       

    Calidris canutus canutus

         

    – Northern Siberia/West & Southern Africa

     

    2a 2c

     

    Calidris canutus islandica

         

    – NE Canada & Greenland/Western Europe

     

    2a 2c

     

    Calidris alba

         

    – East Atlantic Europe, West & Southern Africa (win)

       

    1

    – South-west Asia, Eastern & Southern Africa (win)

       

    1

    Calidris minuta

         

    – N Europe/S Europe, North & West Africa

     

    (2c)

     

    – Western Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    (1)

    Calidris temminckii

         

    – Fennoscandia/North & West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    – NE Europe & W Siberia/SW Asia & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    Calidris maritima maritima

         

    N Europe & W Siberia (breeding)

     

    1

     

    NE Canada & N Greenland (breeding)

    3c

       

    Calidris alpina alpina

         

    – NE Europe & NW Siberia/W Europe & NW Africa

       

    1

    Calidris alpina centralis

         

    – Central Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    (1)

    Calidris alpina schinzii

         

    – Iceland & Greenland/NW and West Africa

       

    1

    – Britain & Ireland/SW Europe & NW Africa

    2

       

    – Baltic/SW Europe & NW Africa

    1c

       

    Calidris alpina arctica

         

    – NE Greenland/West Africa

    3a

       

    Calidris ferruginea

         

    – Western Siberia/West Africa

       

    1

    – Central Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

       

    1

    Limicola falcinellus falcinellus

         

    – Northern Europe/SW Asia & Africa

    3c

       

    Philomachus pugnax

         

    – Northern Europe & Western Siberia/West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – Northern Siberia/SW Asia, E & S Africa

     

    (2c)

     

    Phalaropus lobatus

         

    – Western Eurasia/Arabian Sea

       

    1

    Phalaropus fulicarius

         

    – Canada & Greenland/Atlantic coast of Africa

     

    2c

     
           

    STERCORARIIDAE

         

    Catharacta skua

     

    1

     

    Stercorarius longicaudus longicaudus

       

    1

           

    LARIDAE

         

    Larus leucophthalmus

         

    – Red Sea & nearby coasts

    1a

    1

     

    Larus hemprichii

         

    – Red Sea, Gulf, Arabia & Eastern Africa

     

    2a

     

    Larus canus canus

         

    – NW & Cent. Europe/Atlantic coast & Mediterranean

     

    2c

     

    Larus canus heinei

         

    – NE Europe & Western Siberia/Black Sea & Caspian

       

    1

    Larus audouinii

         

    – Mediterranean/N & W coasts of Africa

    1a3a

       

    Larus marinus

         

    – North & West Europe

       

    1

    Larus dominicanus vetula

         

    – Coastal Southern Africa

     

    1

     

    Larus hyperboreus hyperboreus

         

    – Svalbard & N Russia (bre)

       

    (1)

    Larus hyperboreus leuceretes

         

    – Canada, Greenland & Iceland (bre)

       

    (1)

    Larus glaucoides glaucoides

         

    – Greenland/Iceland & North-west Europe

       

    1

    Larus argentatus argentatus

         

    – North & North-west Europe

       

    1

    Larus argentatus argenteus

         

    – Iceland & Western Europe

     

    2c

     

    Larus heuglini

         

    – NE Europe & W Siberia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    (1)

    Larus (heuglini) barabensis

         

    – South-west Siberia/South-west Asia

       

    (1)

    Larus armenicus

         

    – Armenia, Eastern Turkey & NW Iran

    3a

       

    Larus cachinnans cachinnans

         

    – Black Sea & Western Asia/SW Asia, NE Africa

       

    1

    Larus cachinnans michahellis

         

    – Mediterranean, Iberia & Morocco

       

    1

    Larus fuscus fuscus

         

    – NE Europe/Black Sea, SW Asia & Eastern Africa

     

    (2c)

     

    Larus fuscus graellsii

         

    – Western Europe/Mediterranean & West Africa

       

    1

    Larus fuscus intermedius

         

    – S Scandinavia, Netherlands, Ebro Delta, Spain

       

    1

    Larus ichthyaetus

         

    – Black Sea & Caspian/South-west Asia

    3a

       

    Larus cirrocephalus poiocephalus

         

    – West Africa

     

    (1)

     

    – Central & Eastern Africa

       

    (1)

    – Coastal Southern Africa (excluding Madagascar)

     

    (1)

     

    Larus hartlaubii

         

    – Coastal South-west Africa

     

    1

     

    Larus ridibundus

         

    – W Europe/W Europe, W Mediterranean, West Africa

     

    2c

     

    – East Europe/Black Sea & East Mediterranean

       

    1

    – West Asia/SW Asia & NE Africa

       

    (1)

    Larus genei